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Τρίτη, 20 Δεκεμβρίου 2011

RiEN December Newsletter

Dear RiEN members

It gives me much pleasure to be able to announce that after a lot

of hard work by Arve the new RiEN website is up and running.
We’re updating information as fast as we can.
This new site is easy to update and very cost effective!
Please go to the article by Arve
for details on how you can update your own organisation’s
information. What a great
gift to end the year with – a user friendly website!

Apologies to you all for the delay in sending out the last newsletter,

this one comes hot on
its heels and on time. I’ve got some fascinating statistics about our last
 newsletter that was
sent out via mailchimp:141 newsletters were sent out, 4 bounced due to
 incorrect email addresses,
66 were opened, 71 unopened as of 25 November!What can I say!

In this newsletter we have some excellent contributions by members. Is there

something you’d like
to share with RiEN members? If so send in your article for the Newsletter.
Together let’s make the
Newsletter the voice of members. Let’s use it as a way to keep up to date
several times a year rather
than trying to catch-up once a year at the AGM.

 Have you booked your accommodation yet for the 2012 AGM and the

Conference in Luxembourg?
If not I recommend you do so before space runs out!
There’ll be elections coming up at the next AGM for the posts of Treasurer
and Secretary, see below
for more information.
Whilst Una is on holiday, I’ll be looking after her inbox.

Best wishes for a Happy Christmas and a fabulous 2012

 Louise Vaughan-Arbuckle

Finding Scientific Research

Tracey Smith

From the last newsletter you now know what research is and isn’t. But

how do you find it?

It is always useful to know what research has been carried out regarding

reflexology in your own
country, to do this you need to carry out a literature search of your specified
 topic/area of interest,
to determine any previous positive or negative research published. It is
important to define where
 you look however as there will be lots of information on the web that will not
be of the same standard
 as described last time.

 Where should your search begin?

 A large number of electronic databases now exist which greatly simplify the

search process and enable
 you to access references and specific articles related to your area of research.

Traditional print sources such as books, journals, directories etc. are obviously

still useful,
but the advent of the internet has made research information readily available from
across the world.

Search engines

There are many indexing and searching strategies employed by electronic

databases to find what you
are looking for on the world-wide web. This wide variety of access methods can
prove to be tricky when
attempting to isolate specific data on a specialist subject, and it can be rather like
looking for a ‘needle
in a haystack’!

For instance, if you just entered: ‘search for: “Reflexology” ’ in your internet

service provider’s
‘Search Box’ you could be presented with a thousand and one web sites
which happen to have
the term ‘Reflexology’ somewhere in the title e.g. books, merchandise,
charts, organisations etc.
Some of these sites may be of use, but most will not, and you could spend
hours sifting through
them all.

This is where subject search engines come in! By choosing an appropriate

subject search engine
you immediately pinpoint what you really want.

So search engines enable you to narrow-down your search to onlyinclude

those areas of interest which
 match your research needs, and to enable you to by-pass the many
thousands of sites that are totally
irrelevant. The best search engines for finding scientific research into reflexology
 are the medical search engines or portals. These will be the ones that Doctors
and scientists use but beware– not all will specifically recognise reflexology as a
search term and you can receive a list of many thousands of
irrelevant scientific papers.

In the UK we have a national library that holds all publications produced in the UK.

This library, the
British Library ( also recognises reflexology as a search term and
so will provide a
list of scientific research. This list has been the basis of the research list that the
AoR holds for many
years. Unfortunately, the electronic listing only holds up to 7 years worth of data
and so inevitably the
older titles fall off the end of the list. The AoR list has research going back to 1993
 because we have
been compiling it from the information available over the last 10 years.

Tips for finding research in your country

· Start today: the earlier you start the longer your list will be.

· Do you have a national library?

· Do they hold all publications?

· Can you access the scientific journals through the internet?

· If so – try searching for reflexology – if you get a list of irrelevant research then

reflexology is not recognised.

· If you get a list of relevant research – then look at the journals – are they

peer reviewed?

· If they are then well done! You have started your research list for your


 If you don’t have a national library then the search becomes more difficult.

 You may have to find specific journals that publish CAM research and just
keep an eye on them for reflexology publications.

RiEN will be providing space on the website for the uploading of such lists in

the near future. It would be great if you could get hold of the full study and
get a translation of the research – like I provided at the meeting last year of
 the German research. Buying research papers can be expensive however,
especially if you download them from the internet. Again in the UK because
we have the central library we can get our local libraries to order the research
 from the main one. It is a much cheaper but much slower method but it does
mean we can get hold of the full research papers.

Documented Reflexology History

Spiros Dimitrakoulas – Hellenic Association of Reflexologists

Two years ago, I began systematically to research ancient Hellenic medical

 texts to support my interest
 in the creation of an original Ancient Hellenic “Massage” modality. My
intention was/is to learn and to
put the possible modality deservedly among the other hundred or so v
ariations of massage.

“It was impossible that Hippocrates did not use massage as a means to

heal”, the only question was,
 had he documented it?

It turns out that I was correct, and my persistence has been rewarded

 up till now with two documented
passages that include specific instructions on “rubbing”, and many
references of Hippocrates advising
its use scattered in the Hippocratic Corpus.

Fate would have it, that in order to study and understand Hippocrates

 approach to “rubbing” (trip-sis),
 I would have to read books that where written five centuries after his
time in the capital of the empire
that conquered his country, Rome.

Thanks to the writings of Romans and Greeks (Celsus, Galen, Asklipiadis,

Philostratus, Stephanus)
Hippocratic medical knowledge, was spread out to the Roman Empire
and the Middle East, where
 it evolved and was preserved so we can study today.

Somewhat hidden amongst general instructions on “rubbing”, Reflexologists

will find interesting the
 presence of specific references to “rubbing” of the limbs accompanied by
the effects they produce in
each situation. The resemblances between the goal of the practice of
Reflexology and that of the
previously mentioned instructions Celsus records in the book, De Medicina, are striking!

Reflexology has changed and evolved a lot since Eunice Ingham’s time,

and many more changes and
challenges are in front of us. For example, in many countries Reflexologists
are subject to scrutiny for
health claims or suggestions they make. Is it not important that we have a
valid documented history
also? I find it very unfortunate to read in published research papers that
Reflexology is 2000 years old,
in another 4000 years old, that it originated in Asia or Egypt. As for Asia,
 there are no reliable references
 to support this claim, and unfortunately according to Egyptian academic
 cycles, only we the
Reflexologists believe that the well-known hieroglyphic is proof of Reflexology.
Personally, I still believe it is!

We are all part of RiEN, we have many things in common, one is that we are

all European and thus
everyone’s medical system more or less has been influenced by Hippocrates
school of thought. I do
not intend to belittle anyone’s contribution to Reflexology, everyone is needed,
 but also valid facts are
needed to stand on and proceed. Europe and the world in general is going
through economic turmoil,
I think some added solid ground will do all of us some good, especially if
we restrain unsupported
references that the best Reflexologists are from Asia because that is where
it supposedly began.

In research circles, a lot is said about placebo and the influence of the

 individual’s belief system on the
outcome of any treatment. Do you know in which European country
homeopathy is most effective? The
answer is Germany, why? Because its modern founder is Hanneman who was
German, the same
applies to acupuncture, guess where in the world it is most effective?
  …..easy wasn’t it? Do you think
as European aborigines it is in our (clients) favour to support and promote
this righteous history claim?

Finally I would like to share with you that in Greece, Reflexologists have

been accepted to work
voluntarily in a University Hospital’s Pain Clinic in Athens (Aretaieio Hospital)!
 I was happily surprised
to see their (the doctors) positive – consensus reaction when I mentioned
the passages from Celsus
book, De Medicina, in the introductory presentation I gave them.

Please feel free to share the following information with your

members, or publish it in your
associations magazine, newsletters, websites etc. everything is
copyright free,
as is “true knowledge”.   

Following is the text with the immediate passages of interest in bold

letters, after that is an
introduction to Celsus and the book De Medicina, following that are
the links to take you to the
online sources (books) copyright free!

p176-177 14Now concerning rubbing, Asclepiades as if he were the inventor

of the practice has
treated it in his volume, entitled "Common aids," at such great length, that,
 though making mention
 only of three such aids, namely, Rubbing, Water-drinking, and Rocking,
yet he has taken up the
 greatest part with the first-named subject. Now on such matters recent
writers ought to have credit
where they have made discoveries, or where they have rightly followed others;
yet we must not omit
to attribute to their true authors teaching found among the more ancient writers.
2And it cannot be
disputed that Asclepiades has taught when and how rubbing should be practised,
with a wider
application, and in a clearer way, although he has discovered nothing which had
 not been comprised
in a few words by that most ancient writer Hippocrates, who said that rubbing,
if strenuous, hardens
the body, if gentle, relaxes; if much, it diminishes, if moderate, fills out. It follows,
therefore, that in the
following cases rubbing should be employed, when either a feeble body
has to be toned up, or one
indurated has to be softened, or a harmful superfluity is to be dispersed,
or a thin and infirm body
has to be nourished.3Yet when examined with attention (although this
no longer concerns the
medical man) the various species of rubbing may be easily recognized
as all dependent on causing
one thing, depletion. For an object is toned up when that is removed, which,
by its presence was the
cause of the laxness; and is softened when that which has been producing
 induration is abstracted;
and it is filled up, not by the rubbing itself, but by the nutriment, which
subsequently penetrates by
some sort of dispersal to the very skin itself after it has become relaxed.
4The cause of the different
results lies in the degree.

Now there is a great difference between anointing and rubbing. For it is

desirable that even in acute
and recent diseases the body should be anointed and then gently stroked,
but only during remissions
and before food. But prolonged rubbing is unsuitable in acute and increasing
troubles, unless it be in
madness to procure sleep.5Yet a prolonged illness and one declining from
 its primary vehemence loves
 this aid. I am quite aware that some say that the need for any aid is during
the increase of diseases,
not when diseases are tending to end of themselves. But this is not the case.
 For a disorder, even
 although it will end of itself, may be expelled yet more speedily by adopting
 the aid. 6An aid is
necessary on two accounts, both that health may be regained at the earliest
possible179 moment,
and that what remains of the disease may not again become exacerbated
from however slight a cause.
Possibly the disease may have become less grave than it had been, yet is
not completely got rid of,
but some remnants of it persist, which the application of a remedy disperses.
7But while rubbing is r
ightly applied after a disorder has been lessened, yet it should never be
applied whilst a fever is
increasing: but if possible after the fever has entirely left the body, or if not,
at least when it has
remitted. Sometimes, moreover, rubbing should be applied to the body all over,
as when a thin man
ought to put on flesh; sometimes to a part only, either because weakness
of the limb actually
rubbed demands it, or that of some other part.(referral – cross reflexes)
8 For both prolonged
headaches100 are relieved by rubbing of the head, although not at the height
of the pain, and any
partially paralysed limb is strengthened by itself being rubbed.
Much more often, however, some
other part is to be rubbed than that which is the seat of the pain; and
especially when we want
to withdraw material from the head or trunk, and therefore rub the
arms and legs. (Reflexology) 
9Neither should we listen to those who would fix numerically how many
times a patient is to be stroked;
for that is to be regulated by his strength; and if he is very infirm fifty strokes
may possibly be enough,
 if more robust possibly two hundred may be made; then an intermediate
number according to his
strength. Hence it is that the hand is to be passed even fewer times over a
woman than over a man,
fewer over a child or old man, than over a young adult. 10Finally, if particular
 limbs are rubbed, many
strokes are required p181 and forcible rubbing; both because the body cannot
be as a whole quickly
rendered weak through a part, and it is necessary that as much as possible
of the diseased matter
 should be dispersed, whether our aim is to relieve the limb actually rubbed,
or through it
another limb. (referral – cross reflexes) When, however, general bodily
weakness requires that the
rubbing should be applied all over, it should be shorter and more gentle,
just to the extent of softening
the skin, so that the body may be more easily capable of forming new
material from food recently
consumed. 11As I have stated above (II.6.7), a patient is already in a bad way,
when the exterior of
the body is cold, whilst his interior is hot and there is thirst. But even then rubbing
is the only remedy;
if it draws the heat outwards into the skin, it makes possible an opportunity
for other treatment.

Through long contact with Greek culture, and their eventual conquest of

Greece in 27 B.C.
the Romans absorbed many of the Greek ideas on medicine.

Aulus Cornelius Celsus(ca 25 BC—ca 50) Roman encyclopaedist.

Celsus gathered extensive writings from the Greek Empire, translated them

into Roman, and compiled
 their vast knowledge into an encyclopedia entitled De artibus (A.D. 25-35).
 Originally, this great work
contained five books on agriculture, and other books of unknown length on
 military science,
government, history, law, philosophy, rhetoric, and medicine. The only books
 to survive, however,
were The Eight Books of Medicine, or De medicina libri octo, the most
comprehensive medical
history and detailed description of medical and surgical procedures ever produced
 by a Roman writer.
 They were also the first translation of Greek medical terms into Latin terms that
have remained
standard in medicine for 2000 years!

De Medicina draws upon knowledge from ancient Greek works, and is considered

 the best surviving
treatise on Alexandrian medicine. This work covers the topics of diet, disease,
 pharmacology, therapy
and surgery.

Celsuswas a strict adherent to the teachings of the great Greek physician,

 Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.),
and some historians believe much of De medicina's contents came from a vast
collection of writings
of the school of Hippocrates. In fact, in De medicina, Celsus references some
80 Greek medical
writers. His medical philosophy was also influenced by Asclepiades, who
Greek medicine in Rome.

The original work was published some time before 47 CE, and it consisted

of eight books.
The subject matter is divided as follows:

· Book I – Diet, hygiene, and the benefits of exercise.

· Book II – The cause of disease, its symptoms and prognosis.

(rubbing of the limbs - Reflexology)

· Book III – Treatment of diseases, including the common cold and pneumonia.

· Book IV – Anatomical descriptions of selected diseases.

· Book V – Medicines, including opiates, diuretics, purgatives and laxatives.

· Book VI – Ulcers, skin lesions and diseases.

· Book VII – Classical operations, such as lithotomy and removal of cataracts.

· Book VIII – Treatment of dislocations and fractures.

De Medicina was known during the Middle Ages, but was later lost up

until the 15th century.
It was the first medical book to be printed, in Florence, 1478.

Text online in English -*.html

Original text in Latin -

Tip to get a picture of the original text: Once on the page (above) use the

PrtScn button and
then open the paint program and press paste, finally save.
Text in Italian language:

Regarding copyright of the digital books
This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library 
shelves before 
it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's b
ooks discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the 
public domain. 
A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal 
copyright term 
has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. 
Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of 
culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 


Orlando Volpe

As you will have noticed in the last newsletter, I am involved in creating
a European foot Reflexology map. The aim of having such a map is to have
 one universal document for foot Reflexology and to show it to the political
and medical world. This has been done for example with the acupuncture map.
As you well know all countries in Europe have their own map. Furthermore,
in many cases, there are many other private maps.

There is no problem with this, every one of you can continue to use the
map you like in your own practice, but, with regard to the profession of
foot Reflexology, we need to be united and show that we have a common
foot map. I strongly believe that this can help us to get recognition for
 our profession. From a commercial point of view, we, as RiEN would
also have the possibility to publicise our European map in all countries.
Now, to help me in starting this job, I need your collaboration.

First step:

The European map I have in mind will be in English. (Then, those who
want to can translate it into his/her country language). I kindly ask all of
you to send me by e-mail the map you are using in your country in
pdf format. This map has to be translated into English before sending it to me.

On my side, I will send all of you the FIRP map that we are translating
 into English. To do this, we have provided the executable files of our map
 to a company who work in translating documents. By using the executable
 files, they can work directly on the map by simply replacing the Italian
name with the English one. The cost is not high at all.

Once I have collected all the maps, I will start my work comparing them
and I will contact all of you personally via Skype to talk about the map

I know this will not be an easy job, but, if we are able to drop through
 the windows our ego, we may join in a short period (next AGM meeting)
  to have a common document which will represent all of us.

Please if can you can provide me your with your maps translated into
English by January 31, 2012.

My contact details are: Phone: 0039 011 9278526 –
 Mobile: 0039 338 2893022 – Skype name: Orlando.Volpe –
Facebook: Orlando Volpe, Torino - Email:

Mailing of the newsletter

The RiEN newsletter is emailed out to the secretary of the member
association for them to circulate to their members. If however, you would
like to receive a copy, you'll need to sign up to our mailing list on Mail Chimp
to do so just click here


RiEN AGM 2012 – Thursday 10th May - LUXEMBOURG

The venue is booked for next year and will be taking place at the Auberge
de Jeunesse in Echternach, Luxembourg.

If you want to book into the Auberge de Jeunesse (dormitories) please use

reference number 15552.


11-13 May 2012 - LUXEMBOURG

AGM 2013

Who would like to host the 2013 AGM? Offers/suggestions please.


This month’s snippet is on Elections

There are 2 posts on the Board to be voted for at the 2012 AGM,
Treasurer and Secretary. The protocol that needs to be followed
according to the Constitution (a full copy of the Constitution and Appendices
can be found on the RiEN website) is:

8.4 Nominations

a) Nominations for specific Offices of the Board must be given in writing
to the Secretary, no later than five (5) weeks prior to the date set for the
Annual General Meeting.

b) in the event that no nomination is received by the due date in respect
of one of the signatory or other designated offices then exceptionally
nominations may be taken at the Annual General Meeting.

c) Nominations may only be made by Full Members of RiEN.

d) The Secretary shall confirm with all nominees their willingness to
stand for the position for which they have been nominated and in the
event of their acceptance said nominee shall be required to supply to
the Secretary brief details of themselves for circulation to the members.
 In addition, the nominee shall sign a declaration of intent to abide with
the aims and objectives of the Reflexology in Europe Network to confirm
 their commitment to donate sufficient time to fulfil the position of an
elected Executive Committee member and to accept and abide by
 the working practices and precedents of RiEN.

e) The qualifications for membership of the Board are set out in
Appendix 3 of the Constitution, which Appendix shall be considered
to form an integral part of this document and the Constitutionand
Objects contained therein.

f) Board members are elected to office for a two (2) year term of office.

Appendix 3

To serve on the Board any person must

1. have been nominated in accordance with the procedure set out in
 item 8.4 of the Constitution.

2. Be prepared to sign a Statement of Intent to abide by the
Aims & Objectives of RiEN and to work to further enhance
the standing and development of RiEN nationally and internationally.

3. Be prepared to accept and abide by the working practices and

4. Be prepared to confirm their commitment to donate sufficient
 time to fulfil the position for which they have been nominated

To serve as an Officer of RiEN any person must

1. Have been nominated in accordance with the procedure set out
in item 8.4 of the Constitution.

2. Be prepared to sign a Statement of Intent to abide by the
 Aims & Objectives of RiEN and to work to further enhance
 the standing and development of RiEN nationally and internationally

3. Be prepared to accept and abide by the working practices
and precedents


We are looking for future articles and photgraphs for our
bi-monthly newsletter. If you have reflexology articles or
news you would like to share with everyone please send
it in a word format to We also need to
expand our library of stock photographs to add a bit of colour
 to our newsletters. If you have photographs that you have
taken or paid for the rights to use and would like to share
them please send a copy in .jpeg format to