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Κυριακή, 17 Φεβρουαρίου 2013

Optical, Spectroscopic, and Doppler Evaluation of “Normal” and “Abnormal” Reflexology Areas in Lumbar Vertebral Pathology: A Case Study

Abstract


Scientific validation of reflexology requires an in-depth and noninvasive evaluation of “reflexology/reflex areas” in health and disease. The present paper reports the differential properties of “normal” and “abnormal” reflexology areas related to the lumbar vertebrae in a subject suffering from low back pain. The pathology is supported by radiological evidence. The reflexology target regions were clinically assessed with respect to colour and tenderness in response to finger pressure. Grey scale luminosity and pain intensity, as assessed by visual analogue scale scores, differentiated “normal” from “abnormal” skin. Skin swept source-optical coherence tomography recorded their structural differences. Infrared thermography revealed temperature variations. A laser Doppler study using a combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring system indicated alterations in blood flow and oxygen perfusion. Raman spectroscopy showed differences in chemical signatures between these areas. The present findings may indicate a potential correlation between the reflexology areas and subsurface pathological changes, showing an association with the healthy or unhealthy status of the lumbar vertebrae.

Examples of a few “abnormal” reflexology areas (RAs) with abnormal skin colour, swelling (convexity), and hollowness (concavity) formations. (a) Reddish brown colour on the RAs of pancreas (head), lumbar vertebrae, and knee-hip-sciatic
 
 
 
 
 
 
In locating the lumbar RAs, the reflexology map established by Eunice Ingham D. Stophel was used [, ]. These RAs were charted on the bilateral medial feet. The scheme of locating the RAs is illustrated in Figure 2. For this purpose one may draw two imaginary lines (AB and CD) perpendicular to each other as shown in Figure 2. The straight line AB originates from the tip of the big toe and ends at calcaneus and the other (CD) is drawn from medial malleolus to below sustentaculum tali. The junction of these two lines formed the centroid (E) of a rectangle (abcd). The rectangle “abcd” represents RA of the lumbar vertebrae (right hand side). Identically
one may draw a similar rectangle on the left foot to
locate the RA of the lumbar vertebrae (left hand side).

More - Research Article 
Noninvasive Characterisation of Foot Reflexology Areas by Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Low Back Pain

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