Ρεφλεξολογία στις Ειδήσεις

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Google Website Translator Gadget_________ ATTENTION "Αγγλικά" is ENGLISH !!!!!

Τετάρτη, 27 Ιανουαρίου 2016

Φιλόστρατος και η χρήση της σκόνης στην Ιπποκρατική Ανάτριψη

Η συμβολή του Φιλόστρατου (220 - 230 μ.χ.)...
"Από τα είδη άμμου, η αργιλώδης μπορεί να καθαρίσει και να απαλλάξει όσο χρειάζεται από τα περιττά, η οστρακώδης είναι ικανή να ανοίξει τους πόρους που είναι κλειστοί και να αφήσει τον ιδρώτα να τρέξει, η ασφαλτώδης να ζεστάνει τα μέλη που έχουν πάθει ψύξη, ενώ η μαύρη και ξανθή άμμος, σαν το χώμα και οι δύο, είναι ότι πρέπει για να μαλάξουν ένα σκληρό μέλος και να το θρέψουν.
Συγκεκριμένα , η ξανθή σκόνη δίνει στιλπνότητα στο σώμα και όμορφη εμφάνιση, όταν καλύπτει το δυνατό και γυμνασμένο σώμα.
Η σκόνη πρέπει να σκορπίζεται πάνω στο σώμα με χαλαρό τον καρπό και ανοιχτά τα δάχτυλα, για να το ραίνει ελαφρώς μάλλον παρά να το πασπαλίζει, έτσι ώστε να πέφτει πάνω στον αθλητή μόνο η λεπτή σκόνη."
Φιλόστρατος Γυμναστικός 56
56. La poussière boueuse est capable de déterger et de mettre dans un état moyen ceux qui se trouvent dans un état exagéré; la poussière des poteries est capable d’ouvrir les pores et de faire transpirer les parties obstruées; la poussière bitumineuse réchauffe légèrement les parties refroidies; la poussière noire et la jaune sont toutes deux terreuses et bonnes pour malaxer et favoriser la nutrition; la poussière jaune rend aussi les athlètes brillants et agréables à voir, comme s’ils avaient un corps issu de bonne race et bien soigné. On appliquera la poussière avec un poignet souple, les doigts étant écartés, en aspergeant plutôt qu’en saupoudrant, afin que la poussière la plus fine tombe sur l’athlète.
PHILOSTRATE - DE LA GYMNASTIQUE.
http://remacle.org/bloodwolf/roman/philiostrate/gymnastique.htm
56. Κόνις δὲ ἡ μὲν πηλώδης, ἱκανὴ ἀποῤῥύψαι καὶ ξυμμετρίαν δοῦναι τοῖς περιττοῖς· ἡ δὲ ὀστρακώδης ἀνοῖξαί τε ἐπιτηδεία, καὶ ἐς ἱδρῶτα ἀγαγεῖν τὰ μεμυκότα· ἡ δὲ ἀσφαλτώδης ὑποθάλπειν τὰ ἐπεψυγμένα. Μέλαινα δὲ καὶ ξανθὴ κόνις, γεώδεις μὲν ἄμφω, καὶ ἀγαθαὶ μαλάξαι τε καὶ ὑποθρέψαι· ἡ δὲ ξανθὴ κόνις καὶ στιλπνοὺς ἐργάζεται, καὶ ἡδίους ἰδεῖν, ὥσπερ εἰ γενναίῳ τε καὶ ἠσκημένῳ σώματι. Ἐπισκεδαννύναι δὲ χρὴ τὴν κόνιν ὑγρῷ τῷ καρπῷ καὶ διεστῶσι τοῖς δακτύλοις διαῤῥαίνοντα μᾶλλον ἢ ἐπιπάττοντα, ἵν´ ἐς τὸν ἀθλητὴν ἡ ἄχνη πίπτῃ.
http://remacle.org/bloodwolf/roman/philiostrate/gymnastiquegr.htm#56

Ελαιόλαδο και κηραλοιφές!

To ελαιόλαδο και οι κηραλοιφές τις χαρακτηρίζουν το στοιχείο της "φωτιάς".
Στους αθλητές (και στους μη αθλητές) θα μάθουμε να τις χρησιμοποιούμε προς όφελος τους.
Στο ιστορικό σύγγραμμα Κύρου Ανάβασις του Ξενοφώντα διαβάζουμε ένα πολύ ωραίο παράδειγμα.
"Ξύπνησαν οι στρατιώτες ένα πρωινό όπου είχε προηγηθεί έντονη χιονόπτωση τη νύχτα. Οι στρατιώτες που ξύπνησαν μέσα στο χιόνι άρχισαν να γκρινιάζουν, ο Ξενοφώντας άρχισε να σκίζει ξύλα για να ανάψει φωτιά, και τότε παραδειγματίστηκαν οι στρατιώτες και άλλοι άρχισαν και εκείνοι να σκίζουν ξύλα και άλλοι να αλείφονται με λάδι και λίπος ώστε να ζεσταθούν."
Ξενοφών 4ο βιβλίο 4ο κεφάλαιο 11
http://www.scribd.com/doc/18314405/%CE%9A%CE%A5%CE%A1%CE%9F%CE%A5-%CE%91%CE%9D%CE%91%CE%92%CE%91%CE%A3%CE%97

Να πούμε εδώ ότι και ο Πλάτων στο διάλογο Μενέξενο 238a μας περιγράφει πως το ελαιόλαδο είναι αναλγητικό (πόνων αρωγή)!
http://perseus.uchicago.edu/perseus-cgi/citequery3.pl?dbname=GreekTexts&getid=1&query=Pl.+Menex.+238a

Παρασκευή, 15 Ιανουαρίου 2016

NICE are planning to remove Complementary Therapies from their guidelines.

 3,258 supporters have signed the petition up until now, with over 10.000 reflexologists in the UK this is not showing concern, is it?

NICE (the National Institute For Health & Care Excellence), are planning to
remove Complementary Therapies from their guidelines.
Wendy Finke PRM (Professional Reflexology Chair) says "Very early in my career as a Reflexologist I had the privilege to be asked to treat the mother of a friend who was suffering terminal cancer. There is no doubt in my mind that the treatments helped enormously, she told me that the only time she was pain free was on the days that I treated her. Because of this her quality of life was enhanced"

Most people have known a friend or family member who has or is suffering from cancer.

Please stop their chance of benefiting from Complementary Therapy being taken away from them.

Τετάρτη, 13 Ιανουαρίου 2016

Σεμινάριο Ιπποκρατικής Ανάτριψης στον Πανελλήνιο







Ανακοίνωση
Έναρξη σεμιναρίου Ιπποκρατικής Ανάτριψης στον Πανελλήνιο (Αθήνα, Κυψέλη)
Οι αρχές του Ιπποκράτη, Γαληνού και άλλων σχετικά με την τέχνη της Ανάτριψης εφαρμόστηκαν στα γυμναστήρια της αρχαίας Ελλάδος και σε εκείνα της Ρωμαϊκής αυτοκρατορίας.
Αυτή τη φορά θα ακολουθήσουμε στην εκπαίδευση μας αυτό το δρόμο.
Οδηγός μας θα είναι η γνώση που μας έχουν κληροδοτήσει οι Έλληνες πρόγονοι μας.
Εμείς θα εστιάσουμε στην ευεξία και υγεία των αθλητών, θα αποτελέσουμε το συμπληρωματικό εργαλείο της υπάρχουσας Ιατρικής ομάδας του συλλόγου.
Και αν αυτό είναι αρκετό θα απολαύσουμε επιδόσεις και τη νίκη!
Τιμή και δόξα στους αθλητές!
Για πληροφορίες καλέστε με στο 6936163040,
στην σχολή Natural Health Science 210.9837344
και στο σύνδεσμο
http://www.nhs.gr/index.php…
Η εγγραφή σας θα πραγματοποιηθεί στην σχολή NHS και όλα τα μαθήματα θα πραγματοποιηθούν στο γήπεδο του Πανελληνίου (Κυψέλη), κάθε Δευτέρα 16:00μμ έως 20:00μμ.
Ο ελάχιστος αριθμός συμμετεχόντων στο σεμινάριο ορίζεται στα 10 άτομα.
Ξεκινάμε 25 Ιανουαρίου.

Κυριακή, 10 Ιανουαρίου 2016

Right side VS left side of the body.

The right side of the body is considered masculine and the left side feminine? Who began this theory?

Hippocrates did!

The left side of our brain controls our masculine, analytical aspects so it represents our logical mind, our mental drive and our physically active side. This is reflected in the right side of our bodies.

The right side of our brains controls our feminine, creative aspects so it represents the creative and emotional side of our personality. This is reflected in the left side of our bodies.

38. If, in a woman pregnant with twins, either of her breasts lose its fullness, she will part with one of her children; and if it be the right breast which becomes slender, it will be the male child, or if the left, the female.
Hippocrates
Aphorisms Part 5.


"Nothing is as healing as the human touch". Bobby Fischer

Ο σκακιστής Μπόμπι Φίσερ - Bobby Fischer το 1972 κέρδισε τον Μπορίς Σπάσκι στο Ρέικιαβικ της
Ισλανδίας στον αγώνα σκακιού που ονομάστηκε “Match of the Century”.
Ήταν εκκεντρικός, παρανοϊκός, θυμωμένος και ένιωθε άβολα με την αναγνωρισιμότητα που συνόδευε τα πρόωρα κατορθώματα του.
Προς το τέλος της ζωής του μας παρέδωσε ένα απόσταγμα γνώσης και ουσίας, μάλλον επειδή εκείνος το στερήθηκε πολύ.
Σύμφωνα με τον Ψυχίατρο Μάγκνους Σκούλασον - Magnús Skúlason ο οποίος είχε περάσει ένα ολόκληρο βράδυ στο πλευρό του...
"Κάποτε, προς το ξημέρωμα, ξύπνησε και είπε ότι πονάνε τα πόδια του και μου ζήτησε να τα μαλάξω. Εγώ προσπάθησα πολύ, και τότε ήταν που είπε τα τελευταία λόγια του σε μένα και από όσο γνωρίζω, σε οποιονδήποτε.
Ανταποκρινόμενος στα χέρια μου που ήταν στα πόδια του μου είπε,
"Τίποτα δεν είναι τόσο ανακουφιστικό όσο το ανθρώπινο άγγιγμα".
Ο Σκούλασον, ο οποίος πίστευε ότι το ανθρώπινο άγγιγμα ήταν κάτι το οποίο λαχταρούσε ο Φίσερ όλη του τη ζωή, μου είπε ότι είχε εκπλαγεί από το πόσο του έλειπε ο Φίσερ τώρα που είχε φύγει. Ο ψυχίατρος δυσκολευόταν να αναφέρει ότι παρά τις τυραννικές τάσεις του, ο ιδιοφυής ερημίτης μπορούσε μερικές φορές να εκπέμψει τρομερή ζεστασιά. Όλοι σε όσους μίλησα στην Ισλανδία οι οποίοι τον είχαν γνωρίσει είπαν το ίδιο πράγμα.
Just before Fischer died, Skulason spent an entire night by his bedside. "Once, towards dawn, he woke up and said his feet ached and asked if I could massage them. I tried my best, and it was then he said his last words to me and, as far as I know, to anybody. Responding to my hands on his feet he said, "Nothing is as healing as the human touch".
Skulason, who said he believed the human touch was something Fischer had craved all his life, told me he was surprised at how much he missed Fischer now he was gone. The psychiatrist was at pains to note that, for all his tyrannical tendencies, the hermitic genius could sometimes exude great warmth. All those I spoke to in Iceland who had known him said the same thing.

De pedibus nudis Περί γυμνών ποδιών

Phyllis began to draw Aristotle to love her. Many times she crossed paths with him alone, with bare feet and disheveled hair, so that she might entice him. http://www.jehsmith.com/1/2013/04/phyllis-rides-aristotle.html


Λέγεται πολύ συχνά ότι η Ρεφλεξολογία ξεκίνησε στην Ασία πιο συγκεκριμένα στην Κίνα.
Αυτό είναι ανακριβές, ένας λόγος είναι επειδή παραδοσιακά τα γυμνά πόδια μιας γυναίκας ερμηνεύονται ως ερωτική πρόσκληση/πρόκληση.
Η συγκεκριμένη ερμηνεία φαίνεται όμως ότι αφορά την φύση όλων των ανθρώπων, συμπεριλαμβανομένων και των Ελλήνων, μάλιστα και φιλοσόφων.
Σε ένα μύθο ο Αριστοτέλης ενδίδει στα γυμνά πόδια και στα λυτά μαλλιά της εταίρας του Μεγάλου Αλεξάνδρου της Φύλλιδας.
Ο κακομοίρης ο Αριστοτέλης υπέκυψε στους πειρασμούς της Φύλλιδας και κατέληξε ως υποζύγιο της να περιφέρεται στον κήπο.
Η Φύλλις δεν αρκέστηκε μόνο σε αυτό αλλά είχε καλέσει και τον Αλέξανδρο για να καμαρώσει τον δάσκαλο του, ο οποίος προηγουμένως τον είχε συμβουλέψει να απέχει από την παρέα της Φύλλιδας η οποία του αποσπούσε ενέργεια και χρόνο.
Η Φύλλιδα έπαιρνε την εκδίκηση της...
Ο Αριστοτέλης το έσωσε όμως, ο διάλογος έχει ως εξής:

- Δάσκαλε, είναι δυνατόν?
- Αν η λαγνεία μπορεί να κυριεύσει έτσι την ίδια τη σοφία ένας όχι και τόσο σοφός νεαρός, πρέπει να είναι διπλά προσεκτικός.
http://theopeppasblog.pblogs.gr/2011/09/aristotelh-poia-se-thelei.html

Science Finds 'Tiny Computers' Embedded In Human Skin

We Reflexologists believe that the brain is represented on the tips of our fingers and toes.


It seems we are right...

"...but researchers at Umea University in Sweden have found that the neurons that extend into our fingertips perform the same sorts of calculations that take place in the cerebral cortex."

Do you think they will add some reflexology in rehabilitation?

"The discovery has the potential to change current approaches to rehabilitation following a nerve injury, since the current assumption is that the cerebral cortex is doing all the work in that system."

http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericmack/2014/09/02/science-finds-tiny-computers-embedded-in-human-skin/
At last I have an article that looks even deeper into plantar fasciitis. One muscle is not mentioned but
I have made a video on this, I will post this in the comments.
this we will cover in our Orthopedic Reflexology courses.
Not Just Fascia
The pain associated with plantar fasciitis is localized to the underside of the heel towards this inside of the foot. Often overlooked when talking about this injury are the muscles that share an insertion with the plantar fascia. Looking at the muscles in the sole of the foot you can see that the flexor digitorum brevis muscle runs directly above the plantar fascia. On the inside part of the heel the abductor hallucis, an important arch stabilizer muscle, attaches.
Foot Intrinsics Plantar Fasciitis
It’s not certain that the pain associated with this condition originates in the plantar fascia. Many of the diagnostic features with this condition (e.g. bone spurs, thickened fascia) are also found in people without heel pain, and likewise may be absent in people presenting with the injury.
There’s a fair chance the pain is the result of a tendon problem of the muscles deep to the fascia, rather than the fascia itself. The role the foot muscles play in this condition will be discussed later in the article.

Orthopedic Reflexology Plantar fasciiatis approach

Oil or lotion? Why?

Στο περιoδικό masage and bodywork digital στην σελίδα 13.
Την καλύτερη απάντηση στην ερώτηση "λάδι ή γαλάκτωμα και γιατί?", την δίνει η Kiyoko Εagle!
Μάλιστα η άποψη της είναι σύμφωνη με τις διδασκαλίες των Ιπποκράτη και Γαληνό.
Αυτό είναι προφανές όταν εξηγεί ότι το ένα ( το γαλάκτωμα) δροσίζει και υγραίνει, ενώ το ίδιο το χειμώνα, δεν είναι επιθυμητό.
Οι άλλοι θεραπευτές ικανοποιούν τις δικές τους ανάγκες ενώ η Kiyoko ικανοποιεί εκείνες των πελατών της προσφέροντας το "αντίθετο" ώστε να επιφέρει το "μέτρο" το οποίο είναι άριστο wink emoticon
Άλλο ένα πολύ ωραίο τεύχος.
http://www.massageandbodyworkdigital.com/i/621015-january-february-2016

On page 13 Oil or lotion? Why? 

The best answer is given by Kiyoko Eagle, she is in line with the teachings of Hippocrates and Galen. This is evident when she uses the words "cooling, humidifies, a cooling effect is not what I want in the cool season". 

The others are satisfying their needs while Kiyoko is satisfying her clients needs by offering the opposite to obtain the medium which is best.

Τρίτη, 15 Δεκεμβρίου 2015

Ημερίδα και κοπή πίτας του ΣΕΡ 31 Ιανουαρίου

Αυτά είναι τα ωραία...
Έχετε κάτι να μοιραστείτε?
Συνάδελφοι,
Με χαρά σας ανακοινώνουμε ότι την Κυριακή 31 Ιανουαρίου 2016, εν όψη του νέου έτους θα κοπεί η πίτα του σωματείου μας και θα σας παρουσιαστεί το νέο Δ.Σ.
Η ίδια μέρα θα λειτουργήσει και ως Ημερίδα. Σε αυτή την Ημερίδα μπορούν να συμμετάσχουν, όσοι συνάδελφοι ρεφλεξολόγοι επιθυμούν να παρουσιάσουν μια ομιλία τους, γύρω από τη ρεφλεξολογία (για παράδειγμα: Ρεφλεξολογία και Μυασθένεια, Ρεφλεξολογία και επίδραση στον Αισθηματικό κόσμο του ασθενούς κ.α.), αρκεί να μας στείλετε τα στοιχειά σας και το θέμα της ομιλίας που θέλετε να παρουσιάσετε, ως τις 11/1/2016 κι εμείς θα επικοινωνήσουμε μαζί σας.
Θα ενημερωθείτε για το χώρο της διεξαγωγής της ημερίδας – κοπή πίττας σε επομένη ανακοίνωση.

Σας ευχαριστούμε με σεβασμό κ εκτίμηση
Το νέο Δ.Σ. του Σ.Ε.Ρ.

Σωματείο Ελλήνων Ρεφλεξολόγων - Γραμματεία
Σπαθάρη 2, 114 76 Πολύγωνο
Τηλ. 210 6424818 - Fax. 210 6451532
www.reflexology.gr - info@reflexology.gr

Τετάρτη, 25 Νοεμβρίου 2015

Hippocratic Anatripsis training utilized by the best European Spa in 2015!

Being No1 is always multifactorial.


I am so happy that this year my work was accepted by the best Spa in Greece and from what it seems the best European Spa for 2015 voted for by The Spa Traveller readers.

Congratulations to the team at the Anazoe Spa!

..and thank you for incorporating my work with Hippocratic Anatrisis and Orthopedic Reflexology into your training program!

https://thespatraveller.com/awards/the-spa-traveller-awards-2015-winners

Liver (cholesterol) - tendons from a TCM and Western perspective!

(Ελληνικά παρακάτω)
It seems the Chinese are correct again!
In TCM the liver controls tendons, fascia, and ligaments of the body, they all rely on the nourishment of liver blood!
In western medicine a similar correlation has been found through a recent systematic review!
Is higher serum cholesterol associated with altered tendon structure or tendon pain?
Conclusions The results of this review indicate that a relationship exists between an individual’s lipid profile and tendon health. However, further longitudinal studies are required to determine whether a cause and effect relationship exists between tendon structure and lipid levels. This could lead to advancement in the understanding of the pathoaetiology and thus treatment of tendinopathy.
http://bjsm.bmj.com/…/2015/09/21/bjsports-2015-095100.short…
If you are a reflexologist faced with a tendon issue, among other things, examine the liver reflex and the liver meridian and work accordingly.
Working accordingly would mean to follow Hippocrates law on "rubbing - anatripsis".
Evaluate the area at hand first, and then work in order to bring about moderation!
Φαίνεται πως πάλι έχουν δίκιο οι Κινέζοι μέσω της Παραδοσιακής Κινέζικης Ιατρικής!
Είναι γνωστό ότι στην ΠΚΙ το ήπαρ σχετίζεται με τους τένοντες μεταξύ άλλων.
Μία πρόσφατη συστηματική επισκόπηση προσφέρει ενδείξεις ότι υπάρχει σχέση μεταξύ αυξημένης χοληστερίνης και την υγεία των τενόντων.
Σε τέτοιες περιπτώσεις, μεταξύ άλλων, μπορούμε πρώτα να αξιολογήσουμε το ανακλαστικό σημείο του ήπατος όπως και την πορεία του μεσημβρινού του ήπατος. Στην συνέχεια εφαρμόζοντας όπου χρειάζεται το αξίωμα (περί ανατρίψεων του Ιπποκράτη), να επαναφέρουμε τα σημεία στο "μετριο" (φυσιολογικό) δηλαδή στο άριστο!

Βλατίδες ποδιών

Piezogenic papules are painful or asymptomatic papules of the feet and wrists that result from herniation of fat through the dermis. They are common, nonhereditary, and usually are not the result of an inherent connective tissue defect. Piezogenic papules of the wrist were reported in 1991.They are found in a large number of asymptomatic people.


Talking about the "foot core"

Orthopedic Reflexology - Hippocratic Anatripsis's photo.I spoke about this also at the recent ICR conference in Sheffield.
Our feet work on a feedback cycle, McKeon says. From the large muscles in the feet and legs to the small muscles in the feet, each sends messages to the brain about the environment. When these messages get disrupted, injuries arise as another muscle group tries to compensate for the miscommunication. Shoes typically set off these problems, as walking, running, dancing, cycling, or skipping force these muscles to absorb the body’s impact. If the foot’s small muscles miscommunicate or fail to send information up to the brain, the large muscles end up compensating. They overexert themselves, which ultimately leads to injury.
http://www.medicaldaily.com/walking-barefoot-helps-you-avoid-foot-injuries-also-improves-posture-balance-and-362164
From my presentation to be found here:http://spiros-reflexologia.blogspot.gr/2015/09/my-ppt-presentation-for-icr-2015.html
CNS sensitization is the situation where an individual has pain lasting longer than 3-6 months and that can last for years. There is no injured tissue, healing times have surpassed, and thus there are no true noxious stimuli - nociceptive input. A sensitized patient actually feels pain; it is not from the periphery anymore but rather from within the CNS, “it’s in their head”! Due to the presence of pain, a lack of movement will follow with the hope that this strategy will generate less pain. This lack of movement will tend to blur the CNS maps (homunculus) also called sensory motor amnesia SMA. Common areas for SMA are the feet, hip joints and upper thorax. On the basis of experiments, many experts believe that gaps, smudges, or other inaccuracies in the body maps can be a significant contributing factor in many chronic pain conditions, and that fixing these problems is a potential way to cure pain.25
Characteristic of these patients are increased sensitivity to light, touch, noises, pesticides or temperature. Sleep disturbances, swollen feeling, tingling numbness and/or poor concentration have shown to be associated.
Proprioception is the brain’s ability to sense the relative positions and movements of the different body parts. The key to understanding proprioception is the body maps. Each part of the body has a separate area of the brain dedicated to moving and sensing that body part. So, we have feet, and we have virtual feet in the brain – parts of the brain that represent the size, shape and position of the feet. When mechanoreceptors in the feet are stimulated by a mechanical force (reflexologists hands), they send a signal through the nervous system to the part of the brain devoted to sensing that part of the body. Research has found that plantar massage and joint mobilization of the feet and ankles has a positive impact on balance in the elderly. 31
Movements that are most likely to lead to changes in the quality of the maps are movements that are curious, exploratory, novel, interesting, rich in sensory input, slow, gentle, mindful, non-painful. Ingham – small creeping movement. 26
Motor mental ability/disability
In normal infants developmental milestones such as eye – hand coordination and visual tracking occur at predictable ages. Intellectual development and motor development go together, consider the presence of primitive reflexes in a new born which would control gross movements. These primitive reflexes normally fade away as the child’s nervous system develops giving rise to fine motor control, like picking up an object with your thumb and index finger – intrinsic muscles/reflexology muscles!
Hypotheses
Chronic pain may lead or be associated to CNS sensitization. These higher levels from where pain is expressed are in charge of fine movement too, which in turn is expressed through intrinsic muscles that also exist in our feet/hands. When we apply Reflexology, like it or not, we are also offering stimulus to the maps, possibly readjusting the maps and desensitizing the CNS. Also of importance, is that the body relies a great deal on the mechanoreceptors of the feet for proprioception adjusting in turn its entire posture accordingly. In both cases it is like formatting your pc.

Πολεμιστής ή θεραπευτής? ...ή και τα δύο?

The story of the security escort/reflexologist in the Indian Ocean.
Το κείμενο στα Ελληνικά στο τέλος.
Teacher good day!
I send you some pictures with an African fisherman who I offered reflexology too after a 50 kilo fish fell on his back while he was gathering fishing nets. 
I will tell you the story from the beginning.

At the moment I work as security escort on a tuna fishing boat in the Indian Ocean. Many of the crew members are African and the nets are brought up with the use of a crane. Sometimes the fish get caught up in the nets and they can suddenly fall out of them due to the movements thus falling from 7-8 meters high. One unlucky African while taking care of the nets the crane was lifting, and putting them in order, went to gather a fish that had just fallen to place with the other fish. At that moment he did not notice another fish that was being lifted by the crane and that unfortunately fell on his back. You can imagine that the fisherman lay unconscious on the nets for 10 minutes. The captain stopped the fishing and went to see what had happened. After a while they lifted him and took him to his cabin to lie down.


The captain gave him a cream to apply on his back, which he took back and I gave him one
cream I had with me, sport gel. The captain saw this and gave it back to me and said do not give him anything. As you know teacher the captain is the highest authority on the ship and of course whatever he orders must be obeyed without objections. I wanted to offer him therapy but this was difficult because if anyone saw me the captain would find out and I would be in serious trouble. So I was waiting for the opportunity and one day when I had finished my job I saw him in the corridor holding on from the banister heading for the toilet and I said to him “come to my cabin now”. Inside my cabin was sleeping another member of our security team with whom I had some differences and if he had seen me offering therapy he would have told our team leader and then the captain would know and then the company would reprimand me for not obeying.


Initially I placed him on chair and took his right foot because he had hurt himself on his right
side and there I found three big crystals on the low back area medially. I had never felt crystals like this before, they were big like mount Olympus, I was shocked. I started fondling them and then I said we do not have much time to our disposal and I have to do something fast, painful and efficient. He answered “OK ….!” Obviously the poor man without knowing what awaited him. I asked him to take a deep breath and once he did it I started pressing hard on the crystals medially. The poor man wanted to shout but did not; he choked his cry so my colleague would not hear who was sleeping. A tear came from his eye. He said electricity went through from where I pressed him up to his waist. The crystals had vanished and I immediately went to the other foot where I found another two smaller ones and I did the same again. The result was that the next day he could walk and move more freely.

The pain had reduced and he thanked me 500 times so I told him to stop before someone saw
us. Teacher I send you the pictures the poor man took with his cell phone and gave to me so you can see and for you to have because a secret operation was planned in order for this to happen and this makes them rare. You may show them wherever you want. Thank you teacher, take care and send many greetings to teacher Gianniotis.





Δάσκαλε καλημέρα! Σου στέλνω δυο φωτογραφίες με έναν αφρικανό ψαρά που του έκανα Ρεφλεξολογία μετά από ένα ψάρι 50 κιλών που έπεσε στην πλάτη του καθώς μάζευε τα δίχτυα.
Θα στα πάρω από την αρχή. Αυτήν την στιγμή δουλεύω ασφάλεια στα καράβια του Ινδικού Ωκεανού και το καράβι που φυλάω και ταξιδεύω είναι αλιευτικό και ψαρεύει τόνους. Πολλοί από το πλήρωμα είναι αφρικανοί και τα δίχτυα τα σηκώνει γερανός αλλά κάποιες φορές κάποια ψάρια γαντζώνονται στα δίχτυα και μπορεί να ξεπιαστεί με την κίνηση που γίνεται και πέσει από μεγάλο ύψος 7-8 μέτρα.
Ένας φουκαράς Αφρικανός καθώς τακτοποιούσε τα δίχτυα αυτά που σήκωνε ο γερανός και τα έβαζε με σειρά, πέφτει ένα μεγάλο ψάρι και πήγε να το πάρει για να το βάλει μαζί με όλα τα υπόλοιπα, εκείνη την ώρα όμως δεν είδε ένα άλλο ψάρι που σήκωνε ο γερανός και έπεσε επάνω στην πλάτη του καθώς έπιανε το άλλο. Απ’ ότι καταλαβαίνεις ο άνθρωπος έμεινε ξαπλωμένος επάνω στα δίχτυα 10 λεπτά αναίσθητος του κόπηκε η ανάσα, σταμάτησε το ψάρεμα, ο καπετάνιος τα παράτησε όλα και πήγε να δει τι έγινε και σε τι κατάσταση βρίσκονταν. Μετά από λίγο τον πήραν σηκωτό οι υπόλοιποι και τον πήγαν στην καμπίνα του να ξαπλώσει. Ο καπετάνιος του έδωσε μια αλοιφή να βάλει στην πλάτη του την οποία του την πήρε μετά και εγώ του έδωσα να βάλει μια αλοιφή που είχα την sport gel. Ο καπετάνιος την είδε και μου την επέστρεψε και μου λέει να μην του δώσεις τίποτα.
Απ’ ότι ξέρεις δάσκαλε ο καπετάνιος είναι εξουσία στο καράβι και φυσικά ότι πει πρέπει να εκτελεστεί χωρίς αντιρρήσεις, εγώ ήθελα να του κάνω θεραπεία αλλά ήταν πολύ δύσκολο κάτι τέτοιο γιατί εάν με έβλεπε κάποιος θα το μάθαινε ο καπετάνιος και θα είχα σοβαρό πρόβλημα. Έτσι λοιπόν καιροφυλακτούσα και μια μέρα μόλις τελείωσα την δουλειά μου τον βλέπω στον διάδρομο πιάνοντας το κάγκελο για να πάει τουαλέτα και του λέω έλα στην καμπίνα μου τώρα. Μες στην καμπίνα μου κοιμόνταν εκείνη την στιγμή ένα ακόμα μέλος της ομάδας ασφαλείας με τον οποίο είχαμε κάποιες διαφορές και αν με έβλεπε να του κάνω θεραπεία θα πήγαινε και θα το έλεγε στον ομαδάρχη μας και μετά θα το μάθαινε και ο καπετάνιος και μετά η εταιρεία και θα είχα επίπληξη γιατί παράκουσα.
Αφού τον έβαλα σε ένα κάθισμα του παίρνω πρώτα το δεξί πόδι γιατί είχε χτυπήσει περισσότερο στην δεξιά πλευρά και βρίσκω 3 μεγάλους κρυστάλλους στην περιοχή της μέσης και προς την εσωτερική πλευρά. Τέτοιους κρυστάλλους δεν είχα ξανανιώσει, ήταν σαν τον Όλυμπο μεγάλοι έπαθα σοκ. Άρχισα να τους χαϊδεύω στην αρχή και μετά του λέω ότι δεν έχουμε πολύ χρόνο στην διάθεση μας και πρέπει να σου κάνω κάτι γρήγορο, επίπονο, και αποτελεσματικό. Μου λέει ΟΚ R...! Χωρίς όμως να γνωρίζει ο καημένος τι τον περίμενε. Του λέω πάρε μια βαθιά και μεγάλη ανάσα, μόλις το κάνει άρχισα να πιέζω τους κρυστάλλους με μεγάλη πίεση προς τα μέσα. Ο καημένος ήθελε να φωνάξει και κρατήθηκε, έπνιξε την κραυγή του για να μην μας ακούσει ο συνάδελφος μου που κοιμόταν και του έφυγε ένα δάκρυ. Μου λέει με χτύπησε ένα ρεύμα από εκεί που με πίεσες μέχρι την μέση μου. Οι κρύσταλλοι υποχώρησαν και αμέσως πήγα και στο άλλο πόδι όπου και εκεί είχε 2 μικρότερους κρυστάλλους του ξαναέκανα την ίδια διαδικασία. Το αποτέλεσμα την άλλη μέρα ήταν ότι μπορούσε να περπατήσει και να κινηθεί πιο ελεύθερα. Ο πόνος υποχώρησε και με ευχαρίστησε 500 φορές του λέω φτάνει τώρα φύγε πριν σε δει κανείς. Σου στέλνω δάσκαλε και τις φωτογραφίες που με τράβηξε με το κινητό του ο καημένος και μετά μου τις έδωσε και έτσι στις στέλνω να τις δεις και να τις έχεις γιατί πιστεύω ότι θα ήταν καλό να τις έχεις γιατί έγινε ολόκληρη μυστική επιχείρηση για να γίνει ότι έγινε και πραγματικά είναι σπάνιες. Μπορείς ελεύθερα να τις δείξεις όπου θες. Σε ευχαριστώ πολύ δάσκαλε να προσέχεις και να δώσεις πολλούς χαιρετισμούς και στον δάσκαλο τον Γιαννιώτη.

Πέμπτη, 8 Οκτωβρίου 2015

Cornered by Sue Ricks at the 2015 ICR conference in Sheffield!

Sue Ricks (UK) founder of Gentle Touch™ Reflexology took the initiative of asking some delegates for an interview.

Here is mine so you can listen to it!

I enjoyed it very much, she is a easy going personality and I liked very much that we discussed many different subjects. All Reflexology related.




Τετάρτη, 7 Οκτωβρίου 2015

Ayurvedic Reflexology seminar with Sharon Stathis

Testimonial

It has been a while since I had the oppurtunity to attend a post graduate course and SMART 1 was just
what I needed.
Sharon Stathis introduced us to the basic principles of Ayurvedic medicine and definetely planted this seed in us in order to cultivate more. She reminded me of qualities I had neglected in my personal practise and these two days with her allowed me to 
refine them. The basic protocoll she introduced us too was taught to us thorouly and the video presentation during practise was of great benefit. The techniques that we were taught are impressive in their simplicity and effectiveness.
Sharon proved herself very knowledgeable besides experienced. This I noticed when she would compare Dr.Fitzgeralds zones to Chinese meridians and the Nadis, but also when she made correlations between reflex areas and foot anatomy.
Highly recommended.

Παρασκευή, 25 Σεπτεμβρίου 2015

9th RiEN conference 2016 Brussels May 7th-8th 2016

The Golden Years – Reflexology steps to Healthy Ageing. Please take notice for accurate prices regarding early bird registration, request information directly from our organizers.

 Contact: 9thconferencereflexology@gmail.com 

http://www.9thconferencereflexology.com

www.cer-reflexologie.be




This Conference is organised by RiEN and CER Reflexology in Europe Network & Centre d'Etude de Réflexologie – Center for the Study of Reflexology (Belgium) Saturday 7 and Sunday 8 May 2016 Chant d’Oiseau Avenue des Franciscains 3, 1150 Woluwe-Saint-Pierre – Brussels – Belgium Speakers and workshop presenters Hagar Basis - Reflexology For Women's Health in the Third Age Eduardo Luis - Importance Reflexology in Parkinson Martine Faure Alderson - Keeping a young Brain Peter Lund Frandsen - New Light on Reflexology Orlando Volpe - Reflexology and the Golden Years Ann De Mulder - Ageing Actively and Healthily Lynne Booth - Aging bodies: maintenance, regeneration and new reflexology techniques combining subtle movement and simultaneous reflex pressure for greater mobility. Nico Pauly - Unilateral Parkinson Disease in early elderly. Nerve Reflexology as additional tool for treatment. Workshops Sue Alma Evans Mauricio Kruchik

Πέμπτη, 17 Σεπτεμβρίου 2015

My ppt presentation for the ICR 2015 Conference and...

PPT presentation

https://www.dropbox.com/s/1xv3bok9jngzwnu/Throw%20away.pptx?dl=0


How does foot reflexology works? A hypothesis.


If we ask: “how does foot reflexology works”, we have to agree on one thing. It has to be the nervous system that transfers the stimulus on the foot to the target organ. This means that the stimulus on the foot is transferred to the spinal cord by peripheral nerves and from there to the brain by ascending tracts or ascending pathways. Somewhere in the brain the stimulus is transferred back to the spinal cord by descending tracts or descending pathways and by peripheral nerves to the organ. In other words: in these areas in the brain where the ascending stimulus from the foot arrives, there must be an overlap with the descending tracts that go to the specific organ.
Lets look at these different steps and see if we can get enough science-based materials for this hypothesis.

1. The stimulus from the foot to the spinal cord.
When we are bringing in stimuli on the foot by thumb, fingers or other materials we are stimulating different nerve endings. We agree that the stimuli are firm but not that powerful that it causes pain under normal conditions. So, we are stimulating mechanical nerve endings in the skin, connective tissue, muscles and tendons of the foot. These mechanical nerve endings are encapsulated nerve endings like Merkel or Vater-Paccini nerve endings. The nerves that transfer these stimuli to the spinal cord are of the A-alfa, -A-bèta and A-delta1 type = fast conducting, myelinated nerves. The peripheral nerves that transfer these stimuli to the spinal cord are: Tibial and peroneal nerve reassembled in upper leg by the sciatic nerve. The sensory endings of the siactic nerve are entering the spinal cord at the levels of L4-S2. (Kahle, W, Leonherdt, H, and Platzer, W, 1986; Benninghoff, 1985)

2. Ascending pathways to the brain.
From the spinal cord levels L4-S2 two pathways are involved in transferring the stimuli to the brain: the dorsal pathways and the spinal-thalamic tracts.
            2.1. The dorsal pathways
These pathways are converting directly to the lateral nuclei of the thalamus. On their way up to the brain this pathway is reassembling all mechanical information from mostly all the musculo-skeletal movement system (propriosensoric information).
On the other hand 10% of the nocisensoric information of  organs is also reassembled in this pathway. Nocisensoric means: nerves that bring over information on tissue damage in organs. These nerves are C-nerves: slow conducting, non-myelinated nerves.
In the thalamus, especially in the VPL-nucleus (ventro-postero-lateral nucleus), nocisensoric (tissue damage) information from organs is coming together with propriosensoric (non-nocisensoric) of the musculo-skeletal system. (APKARIAN A et al, 1995)
 What we know for sure is that in this nucleus there is a somatotopic organisation or homunculus in the VPL nucleus. This means: the whole body is reflected in nerve cells on exact anatomical reprint. (Figure 1). In this representation the C-fibers that are reporting tissue damage of organs are overlapping the propriosensors of the musculo-skeletal system like sheets overlapping each other.

VPL homunculus









Fig 1: VPL homunculus



From the lateral nucleus of the thalamus the dorsal pathways are going into the postcentral gyrus of the cortex. In this gyrus, there is also a “homunculus” or anatomical representation . (Fitzgerald, M. J. T., 1995; APKARIAN A et al, 1995)


2273339_0b34735f0b









Fig 2: homunculus in the sensory cortex


2.2. The spinothalamic tracts .
These pathways are divided in a lateral and a medial spinothalamic tract. The lateral tract transports predominantly Ab and Ad1 fibres while the medial tract transports Adand C-fibres, mostly nocisensoric, from both organs and musculo-skeletal system.
The lateral tract is emerging into the lateral side of the thalamus and from there to the postcentral gyrus of the cortex where they meet the nerves of the dorsal pathways.
The medial tract is emerging into the medial thalamus and from there to the postcentral and frontal gyrus of the cortex.

2.3. The spinal trigeminal nucleus and the sciatic nerve.
Propriosensors of the foot sole, transported by the sciatic nerve, are meeting propriosensors of the upper cervical spinal joints and muscles in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (brainstam-C2). This is necessary for a good general balance. This nucleus is closely related to the reticular formation in the brainstam, where musculo-skeletal nerve endings are meeting organ nerve endings. Also in the brainstem we find a homunculus representation of the body. (OSHIMA K et al, 2005)

3. How does foot reflexology works?
In the research literature we can find many reports that indicate thet in different parts of the brain there is a somatotopic representation of the body. In these homunculi Aa, Ab and Ad nerve endings of the musculo-skeletal system meets Ad and C- fibres of the organs. (DREWES et al, 2006; OGINO et al, 2005; OSHIMA K et al, 2005; LEE, 2002; APKARIAN et al, 2001; Fitzgerald, M. J. T., 1995; APKARIAN A et al, 1995)
 Let us take an example of an inflammation of the stomach.
Ad en C- nocisensoric fibres will enter the dorsal horn of the spinal cord at the level of   T6-T8 by sympathetic sensory nerves and in the brainstam by vagal nerves. Ascending pathways (see higher) will alarm the brainstam for neuro-endocrine changes, the thalamus for motor changes, the sensory and motor cortex for motor changes, the prefrontal cortex for psycho-emotional changes etc…
In the homunculi in these parts, these nerve endings will overlap the Aa,Ab and Ad of the stomach zone of the foot sole. These nerve endings are normally not pain sensitive. But, by the neurotransmittors of the stomach nerve endings, they will be sensitised and they will become painfull.
If we are stimulating the nerves of the stomach zone of the foot, we are stimulating the thick myelinated nerves and they will release neurotransmittors that are de-sensitising the nocisensoric fibres of the stomach and stimulate healing processes in the different parts of the brain for curing the stomach.


Conclusions.


We might say that there is enough science based evidence of how foot reflexology can work. However, these research papers are not talking about reflexology. They handle about other research goals. But, the conclusions of these studies might be extrapolated to reflexology. Real good research on how reflexology works are lacking. It seems that researchers are not interested or…there is no money. If all reflexology associations all over the world should ask their members to contribute 1 dollar or 1 Euro each year for this kind of scientific research, I am sure that in five years there will be enough money to pay a team or scientific researches to detect the neural pathways of reflexology. What are we waiting for???

            Nico Pauly


“Throw away” Energy and Reflexology charts for a while.
Let’s have a good look at feet anatomy and the physiology of what we are doing!
by Spiros Dimitrakoulas, Orthopedic Reflexologist (OR)

Competing interests - The author declares that he has no competing interests.
I have chosen to throw away energy and Reflexology charts for some simple reasons.
The matter of energy because firstly the vast majority of scientists and physicians claim that there is currently no conclusive evidence that energy healing is more effective than placebo.1 The reason it works when it does is because CAM practitioners spend a lot of time listening and expressing empathy – which is probably their secret to success (not the “magical” properties of energy healing) 2. This of course does not have a negative effect on energy methods being incorporated into a hospital setting, especially if we were to include praying for oneself or for others. 3
The theory of the Reflexology charts is put aside initially because of the inconsistent reflexology foot maps. 4 There are many charts depicting the same reflex in different areas of the feet and according to our claims and those of our clients they all work. Also because in everyday practice experienced Reflexologists eventually will work the point(s) they believe best despite their common training.5 Finally if we are working on a mirror image of the body that is projected on the feet we must consider the anatomical variations that occur, for example heterotaxia.6
In order to proceed we must first lay down some basics and a question, or at least I want too.
Question: Is it a “reflex” or a “reflection”?
1.      Ingham made the claim that the application of reflexology massage to reflex points on the feet increases blood supply to the corresponding mapped organs in the body. In her teachings, the reflexology haemodynamic treatment-related effect is thought to be distinct from non-specific foot massage components, such as simple touch, therapeutic exchange and placebo effects, even though these components can themselves cause haemodynamic responses. 7
2.      Ingham described her technique as a “slow creeping rotary and slight pulling back movement8
3.      The duration is 20-30 minutes and for those trained in the method half that length of time. 8 pg.29
4.      Our clients are people with chronic, unexplained, and unresolved health issues; they are desperate and willing to try anything to solve these issues.9
I use complementary medicine/therapy because....
1.      Conventional medicine was not effective for my health problem.
2. I believe that complementary/alternative medicine allows me to take a more active role in maintaining my health.
3. The conventional medicine treatment I received had unpleasant side effects.
4. I value the emphasis that complementary/alternative medicine places on treating the whole person.
5. I had difficulty communicating with my medical doctor (for example, he/she didn't understand my problem, didn't listen, etc.).
6. I am desperate to solve my health problem and I will try anything.
5.      Science is changing, classical theories are being challenged, how are we to prove ourselves? 10,11
6.      Research and its findings are biased to say the least. “It is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached slowly and reluctantly over my two decades as an editor of The New England Journal of Medicine.” Dr. Marcia Angell 12,13

The Heart reflex
Jones and Leslie of the Stirling University reported the inconsistencies in reflexology teaching literature regarding treatment strategies and marked inconsistencies that exist in the heart reflex point placement.14 Despite these inconsistencies there are Reflexologists and clients who claim that they have witnessed Reflexology to be of benefit.  The same authors also reported that reflexology massage applied to the upper part of the left foot in the area thought to relate to the 'heart' may have a modest specific effect on the cardiac index of healthy volunteers, but no specific haemodynamic effect on patients with various gradations of cardiovascular disease.15 Frankel also noted that the reflexology and foot massage groups  showed significantly greater reductions in Baroreflex Reflex Sensitivity BRS compared to the control group.16
The baroreceptors are stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors.  The baroreflex provides a rapid negative feedback loop in which an elevated blood pressure reflexively causes the heart rate to decrease and also causing blood pressure to decrease. Decreased blood pressure decreases baroreflex activation and causes heart rate to increase and to restore blood pressure levels. 
Hypotheses
Jones and Leslie asked the Reflexologists to administer treatment in the upper part of the left foot compared to the control group who focused on the heel. If we observe the anatomy of the plantar foot we will see that there exist more and larger arteries in the first area compared to the control. If for example there is “constriction - stiffness” of the tissues in this area of the foot (metatarsal bones) this could possibly lead to arterial stiffness which would lower BRS thus increase systolic arterial pressure SAP. If someone were to release the “constrictions – stiffness” this would alter the BRS and thus lower the SAP. This has been examined with different exercise training.17
Referral areas – Cross reflexes
Ingham in her book Stories the feet can tell pg. 99 suggests the use of referral areas and the evolvement of this idea is cross reflexes. The earliest documentation of this idea was probably by Celsus in his book De Medicina.18
Through research it has been observed that in unilateral tendinopathy sensory and motor systems present deficits bilaterally. This implies potential central nervous system involvement. This indicates that rehabilitation should consider the contralateral side of patients.19 Also there is indirect evidence to indicate that neural adaptations accompany resistance training from the phenomenon of 'cross education', which describes the strength gain in the opposite, untrained limb following unilateral resistance training. It has been estimated that the magnitude of cross education is approximately equal to 7.8% of the initial strength of the untrained limb.20 There is also Interlimb coordination (Crossed extension reflex) which primarily involves movements requiring sequential and simultaneous use of both sides of the body with a high degree of “rhythmicity”. More precisely, it involves the timing of motor cycles of the limbs in relation to one another (Swinnen & Carson, 2002). Such actions are commonly divided into two categories: bimanual coordination and coordination of hands/feet.
Somatosensory ascending pathways carry peripheral sensations to the brain; the dorsal column system and the spinothalamic tract are two major pathways that bring sensory information to the brain. Stimuli from the head and neck travel through the cranial nerves—specifically, the trigeminal system. The dorsal column is separated into two component tracts, the fasciculus gracilis that contains axons from the legs and lower body, and the fasciculus cuneatus (T6) that contains axons from the upper body and arms. The dorsal column system is primarily responsible for touch sensations and proprioception, whereas the spinothalamic tract pathway is primarily responsible for nociception and temperature sensations.
The second neurons in both of these pathways are contralateral, because they project across the midline to the other side of the brain or spinal cord. In the dorsal column system, this decussation takes place in the brain stem; in the spinothalamic pathway, it takes place in the spinal cord at the same spinal cord level at which the information entered.
The explanation to this communication is still incomplete but definitely many lower and higher central nervous system areas are involved.
Reflexology significance: Cancer patients request CAM treatments in order to “be in the driver’s seat” and Reflexologists teach them to work on referral areas and cross reflexes and one would initially be tempted to attribute any positive results to suggestion and placebo. But it is interesting that this might work because the CNS evaluates not only the affected limb but also the space/side the limb resides.21 Put simply, if you were to place your affected limb across the midline of your body, or your healthy limb on the affected side this might spatially confuse your brain and its output (pain) will also change. Maybe that’s how therapeutic knitting works also.
Diagonal reflexes
Besides an existing neurological coordination of hands/feet based on a serial organization (communication between levels) of the motor system, there exists also a myofascial explanation.
The Functional Lines, according to Tom Myers, extend the Arm Lines across the surface of the trunk to the contra lateral pelvis and leg and vice versa.. These lines are called the 'functional' lines because they are rarely employed, as the other lines are, in modulating standing posture. They come into play primarily during athletic or other activity where one appendicular complex is stabilized, counterbalanced, or powered by its contralateral complement. An example is when you throw a rock with your right hand; you will power up through your left leg and hip to add extra speed to that rock.
While the applications to sport spring to mind when considering these lines, the essential example is the contralateral counterbalance between shoulder and hip in every walking step. Excess strain or immobility at any part along the line could lead to a progressive 'pile-up' elsewhere on the line that could lead to problems over time. 'Silent' restriction somewhere on any myofascial meridian, Reflex zone, Chinese meridian could be creating 'noisy' problems elsewhere.22
Autogenic inhibition - Reciprocal inhibition reflex - Golgi Tendon Organs – muscle spindles
When we are offering reflexology to our clients, their bodies are usually in a relaxed position and no forces are acting on their feet, yet we still find painful reflex areas accompanied with “deposits/crystals”. These reflex areas are located on muscles, bones, tendons.
When we start working on these reflex areas/muscles, at times we are applying low force ongoing tension and the Golgi tendon organ (located between the muscle belly and its tendon) at hand is activated. This stimulus will enter the spinal cord and synapse onto an inhibitory interneuron that will synapse onto the motor neuron of the muscle that we had just activated. The end result will be a relaxation of this muscle (reflex inhibition) and a contraction of the antagonist muscle. This process is called autogenic inhibition and it is seen during static, low force, 7-10 second duration stretching.
At another moment or reflex we might apply a sudden “sharp” and still stretching stimulus. The muscle spindle, which is located within the muscle belly and stretches along with the muscle, will be activated (stretch reflex) and now cause a reflexive contraction of the reflex/muscle we had just stimulated and relax the antagonist muscle. This process is called reciprocal inhibition. The patellar reflex or knee-jerk is such a reflex and the grading response is indicative of possible abnormalities. Similar to this would be a positive Babinski sign in adults, the hallux dorsiflexes and the other toes fan out, which should lead us to considering the respected spinal level and all associated structures.
Reflexology significance of GTO’s

Because GTO’s are inhibitory by nature, stimulating those in the feet triggers a relaxation generated at the local spinal reflex (L4-S2), and reduces nerve activity in the associated organs and muscles. This has the potential to create many positive, local effects. If we hold the pressure long enough the GTOs have a substantial inhibitory — relaxing or defacilitating — effect in the brainstem also. Then, you get a more systemic effect of relaxing/healing the entire system. Also worth mentioning is the case when reflexes/muscles in the sole of the foot do not relax/loosen with our direct techniques. Something we may try, is to work on the dorsal muscles/reflexes, “front – back” relationship.23 Finally, if you have a “tight” foot reflex/muscle you might want to work on the GTO’s, but in the case of a loose/weak foot reflex/muscle you might want to work on the muscle spindles.
Pfluger's Laws +2 more
Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger (7 June 1829 – 16 March 1910) was a German physiologist born in Hanau.

The law of unilaterally: if a mild stimulus is applied to one or more sensory nerves the movement will take place usually on one side only and on the side that was irritated (zone therapy)

The law of symmetry: if the stimulation significantly increases (nociception) motor reactions will manifest not only on the stimulated side but also similar muscles of the contra lateral side. (cross reflexes)

The law of radiation: If excitation continues to increase it is propagated upward and the reaction takes place through efferent/centrifugal nerves coming from the cord segments higher up.

The law of generalization: when irritation becomes very intense it is propagated in the medulla oblongata which becomes a focus from which stimuli radiate to all parts of the cord causing general contraction of the muscles of the entire body.

+2
The Physiological Law of Facilitation (the path of least resistance): When an impulse has passed once through a certain set of neurons in your brain to the exclusion of others, it will tend to take the same course on a future occasion, and each time it does, the resistance will become less. Pain does this also!
Arndt- Shultz Law-Weak stimuli (stroking) activate physiological processes.  Very strong stimuli inhibit them.


Reflexology significance
Initial stimulus will have an effect on the respected spinal level and its associated structures on the same side (intense stimuli - contralateral side) thus of benefit for one specific issue. Persistent and continuous stimulus will radiate (-tion law) to higher levels effecting the CNS, and even more stimulus will have a general (-zation law) effect on all the body. Keeping in mind that most of our clients are dealing with multiple issues and chronic pain, and that their pain is a product of the law of facilitation, we can utilize this same law to the benefit of our client. Arndt- Shultz Law, cited mostly by homeopaths, may be a good guideline for us according to recent research findings.28 The generalized inhibitory affect in the overall system through hands, feet and the face, are due to them offering the largest amount of sensory information, large amount of nerve endings and largest areas in the homunculus are present.
Wolff's law and Nerve Reflexology (NR works primarily on the periosteum): Wolff's law states that bone in a healthy person or animal will adapt to the loads under which it is placed. If loading on a particular bone increases, the bone will remodel itself over time to become stronger to resist that sort of loading. If this continues calcium is laid down along lines of stress (zones, muscle chains, meridians) resulting in bony spurs, joint immobility and calcified ligaments. The inverse is true as well.
Reflexology significance – Dr. Hans Selye and the general adaptation syndrome: A stressor has been placed on the body causing an alarm reaction; if this goes on what follows will be the adaptative stage (clear positive reflexes), if the adaptations remain this will eventually lead to the stage of exhaustion leading to the feeling of pain. The work we do with NR might also be affecting this route, the opposite way of course.
Other spinal reflexes
In the developing vertebrate embryo, somites split to form dermatomes, skeletal muscle (myotomes), tendons and cartilage (syndetomes), neurotomes and bone (sclerotomes).
Due to an overlap of these structures in every segment of the spinal cord (viscerosomatic convergence) these structures are interacting/influencing positively and negatively. Viscerosomatic convergence does not only occur in the spinal cord or brain, it also occurs in the dorsal root ganglion, the most peripheral part of the CNS!
Some examples of how dysfunction in visceral structures and somatic structures can influence the functionality of visceral and somatic structures that are segmentally related are listed below:
Somato-somatic reflexes “Localized somatic stimulation produces patterns of reflex response in segmental related somatic structures.”
Viscero-somatic reflexes “Localized visceral stimulation produces patterns of reflex response in segmental related somatic structures.”
Somato- visceral reflexes “Localized somatic stimulation produces patterns of reflex response in related visceral structures.”
“Nerves with a high neurovisceral portion are involved, like the median nerve or the tibial nerve.” Book - Manual Therapy for the peripheral nerves. Barral/Croibier
Viscero – cutaneous reflex “Localized visceral stimuli produce patterns of reflex activity in segmentally related skin areas”.
Cutaneo – visceral reflex “Localized cutaneous stimuli produce patterns of reflex activity in segmentally related visceral structures.”
Viscera – visceral reflex “Localized visceral stimuli produce patterns of reflex activity in segmentally related visceral structures.”

Nociception vs Pain - Gate Control Theory of Pain.Closing the door of nociception.
Nociception refers to the process through which information about peripheral stimuli is transmitted by primary afferent nociceptors to the spinal cord, brainstem, thalamus, and subcortical structures. In contrast, the experience of pain can result only when there is activity of thalamocortical networks (brain/emotions also) that process the information conveyed by pathways of nociception.  In the spinal cord for the body and the trigeminal nucleus for the head some interneurons make connections with motor neurons that generate nociceptive withdrawal reflexes – discussed previously. Pain is a product of higher brain center processing, whereas nociception can occur in the absence of pain. 29
According to the gate control theory, pain signals (nociception) are not free to reach the brain as soon as they are generated at the injured tissues or sites. They need to encounter certain ‘neurological gates’ at the spinal cord level and these gates determine whether nociception should reach the brain or not. In other words, pain is perceived when the gate gives way to nociception and it is less intense or not at all perceived when the gate closes for the signals to pass through. This theory gives the explanation for why someone finds relief by rubbing or massaging an injured or a painful area, or even along its dermatome. There exists dermatome variability among us, and of course there are significant variations in current dermatome maps in standard anatomy texts 30, like the variations in our reflexology charts.
When nociception carried by the small fibers (A-delta and C fibers) are less intense compared to the other non-nociceptive sensory signals like touch, pressure and temperature, the inhibitory neurons prevent the transmission of the pain signals through the T cells. The non-nociceptive signals override the nociceptive signals and thus the nociception is not perceived by the brain so it is not evaluated. When the nociceptive signals are more intense compared to the non- nociceptive signals, the inhibitory neurons are inactivated and the gate is opened. The T cells transmit the nociceptive signals to the spinothalamic tract that carries those signals to the brain. As a result, the neurological gate is influenced by the relative amount of activity in the large and the small nerve fibers.24
Reflexology significance - When a client whishes for us to address their pain, besides utilizing Dr. Fitzgerald’s zones or Chinese/Greek meridians, we can now utilize a dermatome map also. All of them only as a guide, and respecting that it is very likely that they might prove inaccurate for our given client. Light brisk rubbing or thumb walking on zones, reflexes, meridians, dermatomes, myotomes, sclerotomes may relieve the pain experienced by “closing the door/gate behind us”.
Now utilizing this knowledge we can decide when to use the feet, the hands, the face and the ears.

Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) is commonly known as counter irritation. This phenomenon goes back to the Hippocratic aphorism: “If two sufferings take place at the same time, but at different points, the stronger makes the weaker silent”.
Neurones in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord were found to be inhibited when a nociceptive stimulus is applied to any part of the body that is distinct from the excitatory receptive fields of the dorsal horn neurones that are inhibited (hence the origin of the term “diffuse” as opposed to the similarly observed hypoalgesic effects of painful stimulation to the same segmental region of the body, as for instance during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation). This “pain inhibiting pain” effect is well known from folk medicine across many cultures. Indeed, in early surgical procedures on humans and animals this concept was harnessed without realization of the underlying mechanisms (for example, use of the twitch in horses and nasal forceps in cattle during caudectomies or castrations which are both potentially very painful procedures). Many stressful stimuli are able to produce such counterirritation which has led to the term “stress induced analgesia”. 36

Reflexology for central nervous system (CNS) sensitization, preprioception, intrinsic (reflexology) muscles

 

CNS sensitization is the situation where an individual has pain lasting longer than 3-6 months and that can last for years. There is no injured tissue, healing times have surpassed, and thus there are no true noxious stimuli - nociceptive input. A sensitized patient actually feels pain; it is not from the periphery anymore but rather from within the CNS, “it’s in their head”! Due to the presence of pain, a lack of movement will follow with the hope that this strategy will generate less pain. This lack of movement will tend to blur the CNS maps (homunculus) also called sensory motor amnesia SMA. Common areas for SMA are the feet, hip joints and upper thorax. On the basis of experiments, many experts believe that gaps, smudges, or other inaccuracies in the body maps can be a significant contributing factor in many chronic pain conditions, and that fixing these problems is a potential way to cure pain.25

Characteristic of these patients are increased sensitivity to light, touch, noises, pesticides or temperature. Sleep disturbances, swollen feeling, tingling numbness and/or poor concentration have shown to be associated.
Proprioception is the brain’s ability to sense the relative positions and movements of the different body parts. The key to understanding proprioception is the body maps. Each part of the body has a separate area of the brain dedicated to moving and sensing that body part. So, we have feet, and we have virtual feet in the brain – parts of the brain that represent the size, shape and position of the feet. When mechanoreceptors in the feet are stimulated by a mechanical force (reflexologists hands), they send a signal through the nervous system to the part of the brain devoted to sensing that part of the body. Research has found that plantar massage and joint mobilization of the feet and ankles has a positive impact on balance in the elderly. 31
Movements that are most likely to lead to changes in the quality of the maps are movements that are curious, exploratory, novel, interesting, rich in sensory input, slow, gentle, mindful, non-painful.  Ingham – small creeping movement. 26
Motor mental ability/disability
In normal infants developmental milestones such as eye – hand coordination and visual tracking occur at predictable ages. Intellectual development and motor development go together, consider the presence of primitive reflexes in a new born which would control gross movements. These primitive reflexes normally fade away as the child’s nervous system develops giving rise to fine motor control, like picking up an object with your thumb and index finger – intrinsic muscles/reflexology muscles!  
Hypotheses
Chronic pain may lead or be associated to CNS sensitization. These higher levels from where pain is expressed are in charge of fine movement too, which in turn is expressed through intrinsic muscles that also exist in our feet/hands. When we apply Reflexology, like it or not, we are also offering stimulus to the maps, possibly readjusting the maps and desensitizing the CNS. Also of importance, is that the body relies a great deal on the mechanoreceptors of the feet for proprioception adjusting in turn its entire posture accordingly. In both cases it is like formatting your pc.27

Why does Lynne Booth’s VRT and zonal triggers work?
One aspect of vertical reflexology is treating the client in a standing – weight bearing position, where all the reflexes can be accessed through the dorsum of the foot. Initially the first VRT treatments were directed towards orthopedic problems and this is where Lynne saw her first positive results.  Having to do with an explanation for these positive results Lynne states
I propose that VRT puts the body into a neutral state where the long-term legacy of strain, tension, degeneration or scar tissue in its systems is bypassed to allow direct access to the original problem.”
Noticeable is also that “The client will also observe that the feet feel much more tender when worked in a weight-bearing position, and the therapist should be aware of this factor and decrease the pressure accordingly.”32
In my opinion the advantage of VRT compared to a normal Reflexology session is that the client is in the weight bearing position but not because it is in neutral state, as I understand it (nonaligned, disengaged state) rather because it is in the exact opposite state. When we are weight bearing our body is aligned and engaged for movement, or even for keeping us standing still (kinetic chains/ myofascial chains, meridians, zones), and is this not the time when most people have pain? I find it only natural that our client’s positive reflexes (disturbed reflex presents pain and/or “finding”) will appear, or at least appear differently when they are weight bearing then compared to when they are lying down as in the usual Reflexology position.  This could also explain the larger perception of tenderness felt by the client in this position.
“The zonal triggers (ZTs) are deep ankle reflexes that play an important role in activating the zones extremely quickly so that the body is more receptive to healing.” In my opinion I believe the ZT area is of great importance, standing or lying down, because of the inferior extensor retinaculum (the superior is of importance also), the superior - inferior peroneal retinaculum and the flexor retinaculum.
A retinaculum is a band like thickening of the deep fascia in distal portions of the limbs that holds tendons in positions when muscles contract. Though muscles have a relatively straight line of pull, the muscles of the distal extremities are much different. The long extensors of the toes are a good example. They travel the length of the lower leg and then over the top of the foot they take close to a 900 angle bend over the top of the foot near the ankle joint to the toes. The retinaculum is there in order for these tendons to be mechanically efficient and held close to the joint. If they weren’t there would be a tendency for the tendons to be pulled away from the joint when the muscle contracted.  Due to repetitive motion/friction, sprains, postural compensation patterns, or compression during movement tenosynovitis, fibrous adhesions or a roughening of the surface between the tendon and its sheath may develop. There is a common tenosynovitis condition that develops over the top of the foot where the long extensors of the toes pass under the extensor retinaculum called “lace bite” because tight shoelaces are often the primary cause.
By the 'everything-connects-to-everything-else' fascial principle, the Superficial Front Line (SFL) connects the entire anterior surface of the body from the top of the feet to the side of the skull in two pieces -toes to pelvis and pelvis to head - which, when the hip is extended as in standing, function as one continuous line of integrated myofascia. So releasing existing adhesions between the tendon and its sheath in this ZT area will have an effect on the SFL, or zones, or meridians, or reflexes. Interestingly Tom Myers states, “The need to create sudden and strong flexion movements at the various joints requires that the muscular portion of the SFL contain a higher proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers.” , could this be the reason Lynne states “…that the body is more responsive to a healing and energetic stimulation when treated briefly in a standing position.”?

Why does Ingham’s chronic reflex area for sciatica, reproduction and rectum work and what’s the connection with SP6 – Sanyinjiao or Three ladies having tea?

In the section Rectal Disorders page 84, “Stories the feet can tell”  Eunice tells us “…we will find this reflex on the inner side of each ankle about half an inch from the cord leading up the back of the leg. The tenderness here may extend three to five inches up from the heel...”
Spleen 6 is the point at which the Spleen, Liver and Kidney meridians intersect, hence the name, Three Yin Intersection or three ladies having tea. Indicated for anything gynecological, reproductive health in men, painful urination, insomnia, dizziness, low back and knee pain, digestive disorders. (ORGANS!!!!)
Tom Myers approach places this area/reflex point as a part of the Deep Front Line DFL. The three structures at hand would be the posterior tibialis, flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallicus longus, and they account for the deep posterior compartment (Yin). The myofascial structures of the DFL accompany the extensions of the viscera (organs) into the limbs.
They can only be palpated directly just above the ankle. Tibial nerve is also entering the tarsal tunnel and so is tibial artery. Anatomy Trains Myofascial Meridians
So, if this reflex area is positive to work on, what issues might we be positively affecting according to Tom Myers?
Any feet problems (arches, cramps), deep calf muscles (tiredness, cramps), knee (capsule, back of knee popliteus, medial femoral epicondyle), adductor issues (abdominal syndrome), hemorrhoids, pelvic floor issues, psoas, all organs, diaphragm, pericardium, scalene muscles, neck muscles, tongue.
Placebo
Non-specific low back pain symptoms seem to improve in a similar pattern in clinical trials following a wide variety of active as well as inactive treatments. It is important to explore factors other than the treatment that might influence symptom improvement. The placebo treatment/waiting list control/no treatment group didn’t differ from the treatment groups. 33, 34
 “It ain’t what you do it’s the way that you do it, and that’s what gets results”
The Reflexology problem at the Aretaieio Hospital Pain Clinic 
Touch

Neural correlates of a single-session massage treatment
In contrast, the massage with a wooden object, which involved pressure and strokes along the same areas of the foot as applied in the Swedish massage, had no significant effect on the BOLD signal in either of the brain regions. This latter finding is particularly noteworthy since it suggests the possibility that the human touch component (as opposed to the same pattern of massage with an object) had a profound influence upon the impact of the treatment. It is important to note that the massage with the object may not have activated the foot’s muscle receptors as strongly as the reflexology and/or Swedish massage. 35

Understanding the role of stimulation in reflexology: development and testing of a robotic device


I believe the most significant benefit that massage (Reflexology) can offer this person is comfort. I believe that my greatest gift to this person is my ability to use touch to remind her that her body can still be a source of joy. That she can still feel pleasure; that her body is still a good place to be. 37 Kerry Jordan


Spiros Dimitrakoulas - http://spiros-reflexologia.blogspot.gr/




1. Practicing Reiki does not appear to routinely produce high-intensity electromagnetic fields from the heart or hands of Reiki practitioners.

3. 2010 COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE SURVEY OF HOSPITALS

4. Reflexology has an acute (immediate) haemodynamic effect in healthy volunteers: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23072264

5. Reported treatment strategies for reflexology in cardiac patients and inconsistencies in the location of the heart reflex point: an online survey. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22789788

6. https://www.painscience.com/articles/anatomical-variation.php

7. Reflexology – Science or Belief (Jones, Leslie)
8. Stories the feet have told pg 21 – Stories the feet can tell pg 9.

9. Motivations for consulting complementary and alternative medicine practitioners: A comparison of consumers from 1997–8 and 2005 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/8/16

16. The effect of reflexology on baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, blood pressure and sinus arrhythmia

17. Arterial stiffness and baroreflex sensitivity following bouts of aerobic and resistance exercise.

18. English translation paragraph 14 –p177 http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Celsus/2*.html

 19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24144533

20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17190532

21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19752177

22. Anatomy Trains Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists, 2nd Edition. By Thomas W. Myers