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Τετάρτη, 17 Αυγούστου 2016

Expression of the endocannabinoid receptors in human fascial tissue

Feel high after a massage? Receptors for our body’s own cannabinoid substances are present in fascia according to a recent research from the Stecco group in the University of Padova in Italy.
Endocannabinoids are "the body’s own cannabinoid system" , bodily substances which have biological effects similar to those of marijuana, they are often found in human brain and the nervous system. Studies showed that stimulating the receptors can relieve pain and suppress inflammation. Research has demonstrated that patients with fibromyalgia report that marijuana use lowers pain and improves health-related quality of life, making researchers suspect that endocannabinoid receptors, which also mediate the effects of marijuana, might exist in tissues other than the brain and immune cells.
Their presence was also previously reported in myofascial tissue, suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may help resolve myofascial trigger points. However, the expression of CB1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) and CB2 (cannabinoid receptor 2) in human fascia has not yet been established. This study published in the European Journal of Histochemistry, is the first to establish this relationship.
The auhors extracted fascia lata, the deep fascia of the thigh, from 11 volunteers who had orthopedic surgery, and then isolated the main cell type of the fascia, called fibroblasts. They found both types of receptors,CB1 and CB2, in these cells. Examining whole tissue levels of the two receptors, researchers noted somewhat higher levels, indicating that the receptors may also be present in other cell types.
The authors said that "The presence of CB1 and CB2 receptors in fascial fibroblasts suggests their possible role in modulation of fascial pain. The fascial pain is usually related to a fascial inflammation and/or a fascial fibrosis, and both could be related to an alteration to the endocannabinoid system. Indeed the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors is able to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta e TNF-alpha and to increase anti-inflammatory cytokines, and provide an anti-fibrotic activity. "
"It is also possible that the endocannabinoid system inside the deep fasciae is stimulated during manipulative treatments and exercises. A previous sudy by McPartland et al. demonstrated that after osteopathic manipulation treatment the serum level of anandamide increase 168% over pretreatment levels and Gamelin et al. demonstrated that chronic exercise is able to modify the tissue levels of endocannabinoids. Besides, it is known that the connective tissue is one of the principal target of the stretching, causing the remodeling of the cytoskeleton of the fibroblasts and a modulation of the inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue. Consequently, we can suppose that specific exercises or fascial treatments could be able to stimulate the fascial fibroblasts and consequently to modulate the endocannabinoid system and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. "
Source: Terra Rosa